Mesenchymal regenerative medicines (MSCs) have been proved to be an important element in cell-based therapy. Photobiomodulation used extremely low-level lasers (LLLs) to affect the behavior of cells. The effect mechanism of LLLs on MSCs from human remained to be discovered. In this study, cell viability was assessed using MTS assays and cell cycle was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The influence of LLLs on mitochondrial biogenesis (fission or fusion) and function (ATP, reactive oxygen species [ROS], nitric oxide [NO]) was evaluated by transmission electron microscope, FACS, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), and immunocytochemistry. Cell migration and cytoskeleton alteration (actin and tubulin) were evaluated using transwell assay, immunocytochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blotting. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using FACS, immunocytochemistry, and western blotting. We investigated that certain influence of LLLs on MSCs in vitro 6 or 24 h after 1 h of LLL irradiation. The mechanism of the effects included proliferation rate increase mediated by increased S phase proportion; mitochondrial biogenesis and function alteration mediated by fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2, and Opa-1) and fission (Fis1, Drp-1, and MTP18)-related proteins, NRF1, TFAM, PGC-1a, and upregulated intracellular ROS and NO concentration; migration acceleration through the ERK1/2 and FAK pathway and upregulation of growth factors such as HGF and PDGF; and resistance to apoptosis with increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax, or through tunneling nanotube formation between LLL-treated MSCs and 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptotic MSCs. These observations suggested that LLLs enhanced regenerative medicine survival and therapeutic function, which could appear to be an innovative pretreatment in the application of MSCs.
Barboza CA, Ginani F, Soares DM, Henriques AC, Freitas Rde A.